On 20 December 2019, after the Conservatives won the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the withdrawal agreement with a 358-234 lead. Following the amendments proposed by the House of Lords and the ping-pong between the two houses, the bill was granted royal approval on 23 January 2020, allowing ratification on the British side.  The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. The withdrawal agreement gives Boris Johnson 30 days to publish his negotiating targets. On 25 February, EU member states are expected to agree on their negotiating mandate, which will then be handed over to the EU`s chief negotiator, Michel Barnier, and European Commission officials. The Netherlands does not negotiate directly with the United Kingdom. The European Commission is doing so on behalf of the remaining 27 EU Member States, on the basis of the mandate given to it by EU countries. This mandate sets out what the Commission can discuss with the United Kingdom and its negotiating position. This is the third time the British Parliament has rejected the agreement.
The UK has until 12 April 2019 to decide what to do next: no. First, the EU and the UK must publish their negotiating objectives. However, after the sabre-rattling of recent days in the United Kingdom, both sides have a pretty good idea of what the positions of the other parties are. The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020 at midnight (23:00 GMT). A transitional period is now in effect until 31 December 2020. During this period, all EU laws and regulations continue to apply in the UK. For businesses and the public, virtually nothing will change. This will give everyone more time to prepare for the new agreements that the EU and the UK intend to conclude after 31 December 2020. The United Kingdom triggers Article 50.
This means that negotiations on the UK`s withdrawal from the EU can begin. The EU and the UK have two years to reach an agreement. This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU member state, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. Theresa May – Johnson`s predecessor in Downing Street – has repeatedly failed to pass her Brexit deal by MPs, leading to her resignation as prime minister. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  The European Union and the United Kingdom conclude a draft withdrawal agreement.