Singapore is also participating in the afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) cooperation, an annual multilateral naval exercise aimed at improving capabilities in a wide range of naval operations, including maritime security capabilities and operational cooperation between participating forces, including the United States, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand and Timor-Leste. This is just one of countless bilateral and multilateral military exercises between the United States and Singapore. The annual tigerbalm exercise between the Singapore Army and the U.S. Army is our oldest bilateral formation of 1980. 2019 marks the 28th anniversary of the first Valiant Mark exercise between the U.S. Marine Corps and the Singapore Army. In addition, since 1990, the Republic of Singapore and the U.S. Pacific Air Forces have been conducting the Sling training platoon. Singapore is the only Pacific country to conduct one-sided annual training exercises in the United States (Exercise Forging Sabre). Of course, the renewal of the agreement itself may reflect some of the current and future challenges for the relationship, which may also affect aspects of defence relations. For several U.S.
partners, including Singapore, it was worrying that the Trump administration had tried to advance its FOIP strategy, although Trump himself raised questions about U.S. competitiveness and Washington`s commitment to freedom and openness. And for the future, Singapore could be a strong proponent of a strong U.S. security role in Asia, but several variables, including changes in Singapore`s domestic policy and changes in power relations in Asia, could also lead to changes in the amount and nature of that support, given that further renewals are being negotiated in the 2030s and 2040s. In 2005, the Strategic Framework Agreement (SFA) strengthened bilateral defence relations and recognized Singapore as an important U.S. partner in security cooperation. The 1990 agreement, signed by our founding Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew, and then-U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle, has strengthened the U.S. security presence in the region for nearly 30 years. The agreement facilitates U.S. forces` access to Singapore`s air and naval bases and provides logistical support to their transit personnel, aircraft and ships. Below its target, the United States has sent fighter jets to Singapore since 2013 and 2015 for exercises, refueling and maintenance, as well as coastal combat and P-8 Poseidon.
The renewal of this document underscores support for the U.S. presence in our region, which remains essential for peace, stability and prosperity in the region. In addition, over the years, Singapore has authorized Washington to use its military facilities. Although there are several facets, one of the basic agreements was the 1990 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on the use of U.S. facilities in Singapore, signed by Singapore`s founding Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew, and the then U.S. Prime Minister. Vice President Dan Quayle. Earlier this week, Singapore and the United States renewed an agreement that was originally colored in 1990 and facilitates the U.S. use of defense facilities in Singapore. While this was not surprising, it nevertheless highlighted an important aspect of security relations between the two countries, amid broader trends and developments at the national and regional level. Singapore is one of the United States` most important bilateral partners in Southeast Asia and plays a key role in supporting the region`s security and economic framework.
The United States cooperates with Singapore on the full range of security issues, including border security, maritime security, military preparedness, counter-proliferation, cybersecurity and the fight against terrorism.